Featured Post

Sunday, December 2, 2018

Forgotten Classics: Frua Designs for Hans Glas and BMW

At the Legends of the Autobahn event during last August's Monterey Car Weekend, we encountered this BMW 1600GT, a car as unfamiliar to most Americans as the BMW Alpina Z-1* featured in the previous post, on display a short distance away.  I drove one of these 1600GTs when it was for sale 3 decades ago, and it seemed to offer the performance of an Alfa 1600, with handling a notch lower on the sharpness scale.  Like the Z-1, it was unfamiliar in part because it was never officially imported into the U.S.  But it's also been forgotten because BMW management decided to erase it from the corporate memory banks, even when it was still being produced...

This seems a surprising factoid, considering what the car was (an Italian-bodied, fastback 2-seater using BMW mechanicals) and when it appeared (2 years before the Datsun 240Z). To understand why BMW practically disowned this car, we'll need to revisit the postwar microcar phenomenon, and the part that Hans Glas and his Goggomobil played in it...
The Glas concern manufactured farm equipment until after World War II, when it switched to making motor scooters, and in 1955 introduced the Goggomobil microcar, a sedan powered by a rear-mounted 2-stroke inline twin cylinder engine of 250 cc (around 15 cubic inches); later engines were available in 300 and 400 cc sizes, and the T-series sedan (optimistically called a limousine in ads) was joined by a Sport Coupe in 1957.  Styling was essentially based upon the idea of scaling down bigger cars.  Both the sedan and TS coupe managed a certain perkiness (at least visually), with the coupe featuring a horse collar dummy grille that forecast the Edsel which would appear later the same year...
The timing of the Goggomobil's release was good for sales, as postwar West German reconstruction was in full swing by 1955, and the Suez Crisis of the following year increased demand for fuel-sipping microcars in general. Keeping pace with prosperity, Goggomobil introduced the front-engine, rear-drive Isar powered by a 600 cc (later 700) flat twin in 1958, and followed this with the one-liter 1004 model in 1962. The most interesting feature of the 1004 inline four was the toothed rubber belt driving its single overhead camshaft; this foreshadowed the fiberglass toothed belt on the Fiat 124 twin cam by five years. By 1963, Glas had upsized the engine to 1300 cc, and released a coupe with a more modern exterior by Pietro Frua, the Italian coachbuilder known for his work on Maserati chassis. The fastback 1300GT coupe bodywork, with low belt line and glassy cabin, was built in Italy by Maggiora to Frua's design...
The Glas concern had larger ambitions, however, and perhaps with an eye on the success of the recently introduced BMW Neue Klasse, they introduced a 1500 four-door sedan in fall of '63, and 1700 versions of the GT coupe and sedan for 1965. The surprise new model, though, was the Glas 2600GT V8, which was aimed at the same clientele as the Mercedes 250SE coupes also introduced in 1965. The engine was based on mounting two of the 1290cc blocks on a common crankcase; thus the new V8 had a single camshaft per bank of cylinders. Again, the new model was styled by Frua and the bodies were built at their facility in Moncalieri...
The sober, rectilinear forms and tall, curved glass greenhouse recalled the Frua-designed Maserati Quottroporte which began production two years earlier.  The resemblance was especially evident at the rear, and the overall impression was so strong that the car was quickly nicknamed the "Glaserati."
The handbuilt cars featured loads of finely-wrought (and expensive) detail, and because they were costly to build, did little to add to the Hans Glas GmbH bottom line. The cars did attract the attention of BMW management, along with the patents for the belt-driven overhead cam and the Glas plant at Dingolfing, which had already produced around a quarter million microcars in addition to the new inline fours and V8s.  BMW bought the Glas enterprise in autumn of 1966, and continued manufacturing the Glas model line in 1967.
BMW discontinued the 2600 version of the V8 in late summer of 1967, and introduced a 3 liter version of the V8 which Glas engineers had developed before the takeover.  This new 3000GT kept the Frua bodywork and Glas grille design, but sported BMW roundels as well as Glas badging.  At the same time, BMW decided to honor the Glas concern's contract with Frua by building the remaining fastback coupes in the contract with the BMW 1600 four and rear axle and suspension.  The revised car was called the BMW 1600GT and unlike its big V8 brother, featured the twin-kidney grille up front.  Just over 1,200 of these cars, like the gray coupe in the first three photos, were built through 1968.  BMW, perhaps influenced by their ongoing experience with the Karmann-bodied 2000CS, seemed leery about outsourcing bodywork.  Pietro Frua, realizing that his biggest production contract would end with the 1600GT, embarked on an effort to interest BMW in another design and production contract.  The first of these was his 3000GT fastback coupe in 1967...  
The car displayed similar proportions to Frua's design for the Monteverdi coupe which appeared in 1967.  That car was also a fastback and coinicentally, also a V8 (but a Chrysler).  The greenhouse, windshield rake, and angled tail on Frua's Glas BMW 3000GT prototype also recall Giugiaro's Maserati Ghibli first shown the previous year... 
Alas for Pietro Frua, BMW had already developed a competing product, the new 6 cylinder version of their Karmann-bodied coupe, which would go into production as the 2800CS during 1968.  After that year, BMW phased the Glas V8-engined 3000GT out of their product line. 
As a result, only one lucky driver collected the keys to a new 3000GT fastback and enjoyed this cockpit; the Frua show car remained a one-off...

But Frua kept trying to come up with the magic formula, in this case with his BMW 2000Ti from 1968.  This time he focused on the popular 2 liter Neue Klasse car with the injected inline four. The forms seem again to recall his work for Swiss maker Peter Monteverdi, who was also trying to launch a BMW-based GT as his "entry-level" (but still expensive) car.  For the BMW version, centered the twin-kidney grille in the shark-like maw of the Monteverdi.  That was the main change…. 
Though the wire wheels Frua substituted for the alloys on the Monteverdi seemed more related to his Maserati Mistral, and by 1968 seemed incongruous on a BMW.  Time for a clean sheet of paper...
With his 2002 GT4, Frua came much closer to a design that offered practical advantages over the 2002 which had put BMW on the map in the American market.  The first of two prototypes appeared in late 1969, the year after the first 2002.  The GT4 was a bit wider, longer and lower than that car, but offered the practicality of a large rear hatch.  The car shown above is the glassier of the two GT4s built in 1969-70, and honors the BMW Hoffmeister kink in the side window line.
The other GT4 shows the more usual Frua treatment of the glazing.  While BMW put a hatchback Touring version of the 2002 into production for 1971, the car's exterior was standard 2002, which means warmed-over first generation Corvair. Considering the American sales being notched up by the then-new Datsun 240Z, not to mention the aging MGB-GT, Frua's GT4 seems like a good idea that BMW allowed to slip away... 
Perhaps discouraged by this, Frua waiting until 1975 to try again, this time with the 3.0Si Coupe Speciale.  The Karmann-bodied CS was in its last year in Europe, and here was an alternative in the prevailing sharp-edged wedge form, then at its peak popularity (with designers if not with the public).

Frua based his last BMW prototype on the newer 5 Series chassis in 1976; this was the 528GT. This time the approach could be described as a sports wagon, a body style then offered by few manufacturers, and a potential niche filler in the US, where only 2 passenger sports wagons (Volvo ES, MGB-GT) had been offered.  Lancia would fill try a 4 passenger sports wagon with its HPE, which appeared briefly in the US.  With BMW's dealer network and better reputation for reliability, this idea might have worked.

Pietro Frua died in 1983 after a long career of providing body designs and finished bodywork for some of Europe's best chassis.  It seems ironic that while finishing out the Glas contract for BMW seemed a large order to Frua (1,209 of the 1600GT, and 389 V8 3000GTs), the resulting cars were among the rarest postwar BMWs.  In chasing another elusive production order from the Munich firm, Frua made some of the most memorable prototypes of BMWs that never were.

The Z1 and its Alpina RLE variant were described in our previous post from 11-24-18, "Forgotten Classics: BMW Z1 and Alpina RLE", and in the post from April 24, 2016  entitled "The Car Search Part 2: The Fun Factor."  Other Frua designs are featured in "The Etceterini Files Part 1: Ermini" from December 7, 2015 and in "Concorso Italiano Overview" from August 31, 2018.  We'll feature other Frua designs in an upcoming post...

Photo Credits:

Top thru 3rd from top:  the author
4th:  uniquecarsandparts.com.au
5th thru 8th:  wikimedia
9th thru 11th: en.wheelsage.org
12th thru 14th:  bmw mobile tradition
15th: bmw concepts archive
16th:  automotorpad.com
17th:  wn.wheelsage.org
18th & 19th:  bmw concepts archive

Saturday, November 24, 2018

Forgotten Classics: BMW Z1 and Alpina RLE

This is the Alpina version of BMW's Z1* roadster, the 63rd of 66 Alpine-modified Z1s built.  Not much of a surprise, then, that it's mostly unknown.  The Z1 on which it was based, however, was produced in 8,000 examples from early 1989 through mid-1991.  The reason it's unknown in the USA is that it was never imported here.
The Alpina RLE version of the Z1 was powered by a 200 horsepower 2.7 liter inline six, an improvement of 32 hp over the 2.5 liter sohc six in the standard car.  Beyond that, the RLE has stiffer suspension, 17 inch wheels replacing standard 15 inchers, and in this case wheel arch extensions that didn't always appear on the Alpina verson.  Features unchanged from the standard car include the signature vertically-retracting doors, trim aerodynamic contours rendered in plastic with tight front and rear overhangs, and a flush underpan with contoured muffler and bumper air extractor aimed at increasing downforce.
In essence then, the strong points of the Alpina Z1 are the same ones of the basic Z1, which included a steel chassis with high structural side sills for impact protection (the reason for those drop-down doors), plastic body panels which BMW claimed could be removed in 40 minutes (actual elapsed time was a multiple of that), and a multi-link rear suspension, one of the first in a BMW, that appeared later on in the E36 Three Series.
It also shared the trim and tidy nose of the standard car (shown below) which was designed to induce downforce...

When BMW management decided to build it's first 2-seat roadster since the 507* in the mid-1980s, they formed a new engineering team called BMW Technik under the direction of Ulrich Bez; body design was in the hands of Dutch industrial designer Harm Lagaay.  The prototype was shown in late summer of 1987, and production began just over a year later.  Orthopedic, form-fitting seats were unusual for the period; these can be seen in the photo below. The windows retract automatically when the doors are lowered, and can be operated independently when the doors are up.  Unlike cars with swinging doors, the Z1 can be driven with doors open, but this is not legal in all countries or in the USA...
This BMW Technik team also studied a coupe version of the Z1 which failed to advance beyond the prototype stage. This seems a pity, as the overall form was more convincing than the coupe which was produced years later on the Z3 chassis…tidy, crisp and timeless, with only the fussiness of the headlights (here just sketched in) and tail lights as distractions...
The photo below shows the revised nose profile of the coupe, which approached the form of future BMW sedans more than it did the Z1 roadster.  The tiny door opening perhaps highlights a reason the coupe wasn't approved for production; at least on the roadster you could always lower the top for easier access.
Despite claimed advance orders for 35,000 cars, BMW was never able to produce more than 20 per day.  This, along with the initial price of 45,000 Euros, put a brake on delivery of completed cars.  Owing to the limited space behind the dash, the Z1 was never available with air conditioning, but driving down a winding road with the doors wide open and the wind in your hair, you'd probably never miss it.

Photo Credits:

Top thru 3rd from top:  the author
4th:  executive cars 
5th:  xehay.vn
6th:  flatout.com.br
7th & 8th:  bmw technik
9th & 10th:  wikimedia

Further notes on the BMW Z-1 can be found in the blog archives for April 24, 2016, in "The Car Search Part 2: The Fun Factor."  A sketch of the BMW 507 story can be found in the blog archives for May 1, 2016 under "Max Hoffman: An Eye for Cars and the Studebaker Porsche."

Sunday, November 11, 2018

Forgotten Classic Revival Show: ATS 2500GT and GTS

Back in the earlier part of this decade, an outfit called Torino Design, having purchased the rights to the Automobili Turismo e Sport name, inactive since the 1960s, announced a revival of the ATS 2500GT.  Like the largely-forgotten Italian GT from 1963, it was a tidy, compact mid-engined coupe with a 2.5 liter engine.  In case you've forgotten the original coupe design by Franco Scaglione*, here's one of the 5 survivors of 8 cars bodied by Allemano...

Unlike the original ATS 2500GT, which featured an overhead-cam V8 designed by Carlo Chiti, the revival featured a Cosworth-tuned Subaru boxer four.  In choosing a Subaru engine, Torino Design was following the footsteps of the OSCA Dromos* team from a dozen years earlier. The lines were uncluttered and devoid of gimmicks, with the exception of a central, rooftop air intake not unlike the one on the McLaren F1 coupe...

The car soon disappeared from view, however, and despite ambitious production plans, it apparently remained a one-off, not unlike the Subaru-engined Dromos.  Another ATS effort appeared at this past summer's Concorso Italiano, though.  By this time, the designers had added more supercar cliches, including scissor doors and some tortured shapes obscuring the window between the B and C pillars...

This time around the engine is a twin-turbocharged McLaren V8.  The projected price of the car, $850,000, seems to reflect a $570,000 surcharge over the price of a similarly-powerful McLaren 720s.  And while the fussy detailing on the New ATS fails to detract all that much from the sleek overall form, that form is not terribly distinctive when compared with the competition from McLaren, Ferrari and Lamborghini.

And if the extra exclusivity of the ATS name doesn't sell the car, it's hard to imagine that nostalgia for the original ATS will.  Recall that it was one of a bevy of makes (including Iso, Lamborghini, and Serenissima) launched by unhappy Ferrari customers, in this case Count Volpi di Misurata, who joined with two industrialists and a team of ex-Ferrari engineers including the aforementioned Chiti and Giotto Bizzarrini, in 1962.  Their ambitious plan was to run a new Formula 1 team with a car of their own design, at the same time preparing a mid-engined GT for sale to the public...
They acquired the services of American Phil Hill, who had clinched the 1961 World Championship in the Ferrari 156 (another Chiti design) to drive the ATS 100 which appeared for the 1963 season, around the same time as the GT car.  Because this was the era of the 1.5 liter Formula 1, the new F1 engine shared few parts with the 2.5 liter GT.  Hill experienced power and reliability troubles with his new mount, shown above at Monza.

There were problems with chassis flex, too.  Eventually the engineers decided to weld a tubular cage around the engine to stiffen the whole assemblage.  It can be seen in the photo above, behind the unhappy Mr. Hill.  This made it impossible to remove the engine without cutting the tubular frame, and had the effect of making the mechanics as unhappy as Phil Hill.  The team had a season of unrelieved frustration.

Meanwhile, the 2500GT had appeared on the show circuit, and road testers liked the car's power and handling. The balance and responsiveness offered by the mid-engine configuration were then largely confined to racers...Rene Bonnet's mid-engined Djet was only just appearing as a limited-production road car.  ATS offered its 2500 in race trim (lighter bodywork, sliding windows rather than power ones) as the GTS, and by 1964 a couple of these appeared in the Targa Florio.
These made an impression with their trim looks and lusty sound, but succumbed to teething troubles before finishing.  The ATS operation itself succumbed to financial collapse hastened by the failed F1 effort in late 1964, but not before sending a 2500GT to GM's Styling VP Bill Mitchell, and making maybe a dozen chassis, of which 8 were bodied by Allemano, like this GTS driven by Giancarlo Baghetti in the '64 Targa.  It's hard to imagine building a modern brand marketing strategy around a name that was forgotten by the 1970s, even by car enthusiasts, and was then associated with nothing but trouble.  Then again, if music and clothing can be marketed around nostalgia for the disco era, perhaps anything can happen.

*Footnote:  A retrospective of Franco Scaglione's design work was featured in "Unsung Genius Franco Scaglione: The Arc of Success" for December 20, 2017.  For details on other Subaru-engined supercars, see the previous post, "OSCA Dromos and Jiotto Caspita: Subaru's Distant Cousins."

Photo Credits:
Top:  wikimedia
2nd:  Torino Design, reproduced on forums.nasioc.com
3rd:  The author.
4th:  wikimedia
5th:  primotipo.com
6th:  getty images, reproduced on primotipo.com
7th thru 9th:  targapedia.com

Sunday, October 28, 2018

The Etceterini Files Part 16----OSCA Dromos and Jiotto Caspita: Subaru's Distant Cousins

In 1999, Luca Zagato, grandson of legendary coach builder Ugo, teamed with partner Shozo Fujita to build a new car in Italy.  They wanted to build a modern, mid-engined GT under the OSCA name, and with no Maserati brothers around to object (or to participate) they picked Superleggera Touring, a firm revived by the son of company founder Carlo Anderloni, to produce the car, aiming at an initial series of around 300 units.  Body design, however, was delegated to Ercole Spada, who had penned Zagato's 1960s masterpieces such as the Aston Martin DB-4 GT and the Alfa Romeo TZ-1.

Intriguingly, the partners chose a 2.5 liter boxer four from the Subaru Legacy to power the car, rather than the turbocharged 2.0 liter as used in that year's WRX STI, which cranked out 265 horses.  The more lightly stressed engine in the Dromos made 187 hp, but it had good low-end torque and was available at lower cost.  The prototype which appeared in 2001 was a sleek, tidy package, 45 inches high, 161 inches long and just under 1,720 pounds.  Performance was competitive with the contemporary Lotus Elise (155 mph and 0 to 60 under 6 sec.), but price would not have been close. 

It would have taken higher production numbers, or perhaps a production agreement with Subaru, to bring the price down into Lotus Elise territory.  It seems a shame that didn't happen, as the Dromos was a more convincing sports car than the front-engine Subaru BRZ which appeared with its Scion FRS twin eleven years later.  As with that car, there was no option of the Subaru all wheel drive system, so the car seemed aimed more at weekend racers than rally competitors. The interior, like the rest of the car, seemed purposeful and carefully detailed...

Not surprisingly, the visual form showed a closer relationship to classic Zagato efforts than to anything from Touring.  Note the subtle indent in the roof panel, echoing the twin hump Zagato Lancias and Maseratis.  Also, the rounded and raised center deck form which links rear window to tail seems a modern restatement of Spada's Alfa TZ-1.  Owing to economic conditions, the OSCA Dromos 2500GT never left the prototype stage.  It would have seemed in retrospect a better way for Subaru, which had found great success on the world rally circuit with the WRX, to break into the sports car scene dominated by makes like Porsche.  A less expensive way, certainly, than trying to launch a Formula 1 car...

It's been largely forgotten that Subaru tried to do just that about a decade earlier than their involvement in the OSCA project.  In the late 1980s, they commissioned Carlo Chiti, who had designed the Alfa Type 33 V8 as well as Alfa's flat-12 GP engines, to design a boxer 12 engine for the 3.5 liter formula.  Chiti's firm, Motori Moderni, built the new engine, also known as the Subaru 1235.  Owing to power and weight issues, the engine was not successful when run by the Coloni team, and was withdrawn before the end of the 1990 Formula 1 season.  

It seemed the 60-valve engine might be attractive to power a road-going supercar, however, For one thing, what seems heavy in F1 competition might seem less so in a 2 passenger car.  Also, the boxer layout which had presented problems for the ground-effects aero layout on the GP cars was not a hindrance on a GT.  In 1989, before the Subaru / Motori Moderni GP car had its abortive season, DOME Ltd. from Maihara, Japan showed its supercar prototype, the Jiotto Caspita, powered by a detuned Subaru 1235 engine.  The rounded forms, bubble cockpit, and deep side intakes reflected a move away from the wedge shapes of the mid-70s to mid-80s.  One Mark I Caspita was built with the flat 12.

In the early 90s, this car was joined by the similar-looking Mark II powered by a detuned Judd V10 engine, also 3.5 liters.  For the same reasons that killed the later OSCA project, the two Caspita prototypes were never joined by any production cars.  They remain as museum exhibits in Japan, reminders of ambitious plans made during surging economies and stranded by receding tides of funding.

*Footnote:  For a survey of OSCA history beginning with the founding Maserati brothers, see our post entitled "Almost Famous" in the archives for April 20, 2016.

Photo credits:

OSCA Dromos 2500GT (all exterior views): carsfromitaly.net
OSCA Dromos interior: allsportauto.com
Subaru Motori Moderni engine: subaruidiots.com
Jiotto Caspita Mark I exterior: wikimedia

Friday, October 26, 2018

The Etceterini Files Part 15----Lombardi FL-1 and Sinthesis 2000: Fleet Flavias

Francis Lombardi, a decorated Italian flying ace during World War I, had made a name for himself designing aircraft before World War 2, notably the FL.3 monoplane which was made in over 300 copies. He applied his talents to designing and building limousine and wagon variants on Fiats and the occasional Lancia after that war, and late in his career turned his attention to the problem of high performance sports cars. His first effort to attract notice in Europe was the Fiat 850-based Lombardi Grand Prix in 1968; by 1970 the Abarth Scorpione 1300 with the same body, but larger and hotter engine, appeared in the US.  There were also Giannini and OTAS variants, all late-blooming etceterini before tighter US emissions, bumper and safety standards took hold... 

The Lombardi GP I drove once on the Pacific Coast Highway was a responsive little creature, even with the mostly stock 850 engine.  Surprisingly, despite the low roof, it seemed a bit roomier than the Lotus Europa I tried around the same time.  The tall greenhouse meant good visibility, at least to the front and sides.  Fiat would soon phase out the 850 for a series of transverse-engined front drivers, however, so the car's days were numbered by 1970, even in Europe.  Seeking the basis for a new car, Francis Lombardi noticed the Lancia Flavia which had been around for a decade, not because of its front-wheel drive, but because of the low, compact four cylinder boxer engine sitting ahead of a tidy transaxle, perfect for transplanting to a mid-engined format. 

So that's what he did.  As the section drawing and side elevation show, he didn't waste much space, achieving a low center of mass and much better weight distribution than on the rear-engined GP.  The final product, the Lombardi FL-1, has a family resemblance to the Grand Prix / Abarth Scorpione twins, especially at the low, sloping nose with its retractable headlights, and the low, horizontal crease along the flanks aligned with the bumpers. The unsentimental chop to the rear roof allows decent engine access and follows racing car practice.

You may be wondering why a Lancia-powered car would appear in a series of essays on etceterini, which were most often Fiat-powered.  The short answer is that by 1969, Fiat had taken over Lancia, though all Lancia engines offered for 1972, the year FL-1 appeared, were still of Lancia design. A better answer is that etceterini is a convenient and flexible description, and would still apply to the higher-performance version Lombardi planned to offer with a 3 liter Ford V6. In 1991cc Flavia-engined form, the car was good for 125 mph.

It turned out that the compact 2 liter Flavia engine had already attracted the attention of Peter Giacobbi, an automotive engineer working in Italy, who approached Tom Tjaarda, an established designer (Fiat 124 Pininfarina spider) about designing a mid-engined GT. Tjaarda was then working on the De Tomaso Pantera project at Ghia, and agreed to draw something up.  The final result resembled the Pantera in the low-penetration nose and the dropped window sill line, and also in the angled sail panel aft of the side windows acting as the C pillar...

The low nose forced a nearly-horizontal radiator with twin fans, and the use of the Flavia's transverse leaf-spring front suspension meant no front luggage space. The lines, though, were the better for it.  The car appeared on the show circuit in 1970, a good two years before the Flavia-powered Lombardi effort.

The interior layout emphasized passenger and storage space at the expense of engine access. The engine could be glimsped through some removable panels, but the main idea was to allow easy removal of the engine (downward) by removing six bolts.  The thinking on engine access was not unlike Porsche's on the 914, which appeared in the same year.  The flat panel connecting the tail lights dropped down for access to the spare tire.  All cars still had spare tires back then...
The flat plank of the dash, with its row of guages and switches, recalled other Italian designs, especially from Ghia; the Mangusta and Ghibli come to mind. The Sinthesis 2000 was not built at Ghia, though; it was a case of Tjaarda doing a bit of moonlighting.  Engineer Giacobbi and Tjaarda, pleased with their handiwork, hoped to get Lancia (by 1970, that meant Fiat) interested in producing the car in series.

Neither the Sinthesis 2000 nor the FL-1 made it into production, owing to the apparent lack of interest from Fiat, and each car would remain a singular example. Fiat management had a change of heart pretty soon afterwards, though, and the result was the Dino-engined Lancia Stratos* which became available in 1973, and which won the World Rally Championship three years running beginning the next year. The Stratos production  overlapped that of the Fiat X1-9 based Lancia Montecarlo (Scorpion in the US) which offered mid-engined motoring at a more affordable price, starting in 1975.  The next time a boxer engine would appear in a member of the etceterini clan, however, it would be a Subaru engine.  But that's a story for the next episode of The Etceterini Files...

*Footnote: The Lancia Stratos is featured in "Lost Cause Lancias", our post for February 15, 2018. 

Photo credits
Top (Lombardi GP):  wikimedia
2nd:  Francis Lombardi, reproduced in viennaautoshow2018.com
3rd & 5th:  archivioprototipi.it
4th:  Francis Lombardi, reproduced in carstyling.ru
6th: Tom Tjaarda Studio, reprroduced in carstyling.ru
7th thru 9th from top:  youtube.com